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When Lilies Take You By Surprise

As a kid, when I saw the naked ladies pop up in the yard, it was always bittersweet.  Their bold presence always made me smile, but I also knew it was almost time to go back to school. The ever-present surprise lilies, also known as spider lilies, naked ladies or naked lilies, were a sad reminder that summer was coming to an end. They are “naked” because the blooms arrive before the foliage and their stems are bare.

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Paperwhites with Heart

This Valentines’ Day give paperwhites with “heart.” Follow these three easy steps to decorate potted paperwhites with a pussy willow stem heart.


  • Paperwhites planted in a 6-inch container
  • (2) fresh pussy willow branches (available at florists)
  • Wired green floral stick (available at florists or craft stores)
  • Red ribbon
  • Decorative container


    1. Insert the wide ends of the pussy willow branches into the soil at an angle so they make a V.

Paperwhites for Valentines

  1. Draw together the upper ends and tie with the wired floral stick.
  2. Pull the floral stick all the way down to the pot and push it into the soil. Insert it at an angle to make it secure.
  3. For a pop of color wrap the willow stems in red ribbon.
  4. That’s all there is to it!

Tabletop Spring Garden

Welcome spring into your home with a tabletop garden planted with spring blooms from your local garden center or grocery store.

Potted flowering plants
Plastic baggies
Decorative container
Sheet moss

Remove each plant from its pot and slip it, soil and all, into a plastic baggie. This is optional. If your decorative container is large enough to accommodate the plants in their pots, simply slip them into the container. Otherwise the plastic baggies make it easier to arrange the plants.

Once the plants are in the container cover the bags or pots with sheet moss to conceal. That’s it!

For the longest life, place your tabletop garden in a spot away from source of heat. Water the soil with a spray mister.

For this arrangement I used pots of forced ‘Tete-a-tete’ narcissus, primroses and variegated ivy. After the blooms fade I’ll plant the ‘Tet-a-tete’ in the garden. This variety is a prolific multiplier.

Dividing Garden Amaryllis

I live in upstate South Carolina and plant amaryllis bulbs in my yard. They are beautiful this year with so many blooms I can’t count them. I would like to separate and share them with friends, but do not know when I should do this. Can you help me? Does the foliage need to die down?

Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) are usually grown indoors as a winter blooming bulb, but they are commonly seen growing in gardens in temperate climates (zone 8 to 11) and they are even marginally cold hardy where I garden (zone 7). I have not tried growing Hippeastrum in the garden, but my mother’s neighbor had a flowerbed full of them.

While forced Hippeastrums bloom anytime from Christmas to late winter, outdoors the flowers appear in late spring and early summer. Over time the bulbs will naturalize and while they prefer to be root bound, you can dig and split them to generate more bulbs.

Dig the bulbs in late fall when the leaves begin to fade. Carefully lift the bulbs from the soil. Wash off the soil. You will notice that the mother bulb has bulblets or offsets coming off the base. Separate the offsets from the main bulb using a sharp knife.

Replant immediately with the neck and shoulders above the soil line. Plant in well-drained soil in filtered sunlight; too much sun may burn the leaves.

Store the bulbs you are planning to give to friends in a cool, dry location.

Tulip Color Combinations

This fall gardeners across the country will plant tulip bulbs and then patiently wait until the following spring to see the results of their efforts.  It’s an astounding example of a gardener’s resolve.

But the wait is always worth it, because nothing beautifies the spring garden like a bed filled with colorful tulips.

Thanks to Dutch hybridizers, tulips are available in an astounding variety of forms and colors.  In fact, there are so many to choose from it can sometimes be overwhelming.  Over the years I’ve learned a few things that help me design gorgeous tulip displays.

My first tip is to plant tulips in groups of 15 or more.  This will create a big block of color that is much more impressive than dots of flowers here and there.

Second, when selecting a location for the bulbs, pick an area where they will be cast against a dark background such as an evergreen hedge or the foundation of your house. If you have purchased more than one variety, plant the taller ones to the back and the shorter ones in the front.

To extend bloom time select varieties that flower early, mid- and late season.  For example, a grouping of Single Early (early), Darwin (mid), and Lily-Flowered (late) will flower in progression over the course of several weeks.

When it comes to color, the sky is the limit.  You can’t go wrong planting several shades of the same color family such as a blend of almost white, pale pink, dark pink and salmon.

If you are feeling adventurous tulips are a natural for trying out color combinations.  For the most exciting results allow one variety to take the lead and plant in a ratio of 2:1:1.  And be sure all the varieties you select bloom around the same time.

Below is a list of some of my successful experiments and a few of the varieties that I have used to express them.

Tulips Menton, Perestroika and Temple of Beauty
Warm Blend
1. Pink ‘Menton’
2. Orange-Red ‘Temple of Beauty’
3. Salmon ‘Perestroika’

Tulips Queen of the Night, Menton and Bleu Amiable
Cool Colors
1. Purple – ‘Queen of the Night’
2. Rose-Pink – ‘Menton’
3. Lavender – ‘Bleu Amiable’

Tulips Maureen, Greenland and Pink Diamond
Quintessential Spring
1. Cream – ‘Maureen’
2. Green – ‘Greenland’
3. Pink – ‘Pink Diamond’

Tulips Queen of the Night, Spring Green, Bleu Amiable
Purple and Green
1. Deep Purple – ‘Queen of the Night’
2. Green – ‘Spring Green’
3. Lavender – ‘Bleu Amiable’

Tulips Francois, Spring Green, Maureen and Nemesia
Yellow and Blue
1. Yellow – ‘Francoise’
2. Green – ‘Spring Green’
3. Cream – ‘Maureen’
4. Blue – Plant pansies or nemesia as show here in spring.

Other Possibilities:
‘Temple of Beauty’ – Orange-red, 30″ tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Avignon’ – Orange-red, 24″-28″ tall, Midseason Bloom
‘General de Wet’ – Orange-red, 13″ Tall, Early Season Bloom

‘Perestroika’ – Salmon, 30″ tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Lightening Sun’ – Salmon, 20″ Tall, Midseason Bloom
‘Beauty Queen’ – Salmon 16″ tall, Early Season Bloom
‘Dordogne’ – Salmon, 26″ Tall, Late Season Bloom

‘Menton’ – Pink, 26″ tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Queen of Bartigons’ – Pink, 22″ tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Palestrina’ – Pink with green feathering, 16″, Early Season Bloom
‘Meissner Porzellan’ – White with Pink Edges, 22″ Tall, Midseason Bloom
‘Glowing Pink’ – Pink, 20″ Tall, Midseason Bloom
‘Elizabeth Arden’ – Pink, 22″ Tall, Midseason Bloom

‘Lilac Perfection’ – Pale Lavender, Double Flowers, 16″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Blue Amiable’ – Lilac Blushed with Blue, 24″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Cum Laude’ – Violet, 16″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Blue Parrot’ – Bright Lavender, 22″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Queen of the Night’ – Deep Purple, 20″, Late Season Bloom
‘Purple Prince’ – Purple, 14″ Tall, Early Season Bloom

‘Spring Green’ – Cream with Green Flames, 20″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Greenland’ – Rose pink with Green Flames, 20″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Greenwave’ – Pink with Green Flames, Parrot, 20″ Tall, Late Season Bloom

‘Francoise’ – Creamy white with yellow flames, 24″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Maureen’ – Creamy white, 26″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Mount Tacoma’ – White Double, 20″, Early Season Bloom
‘Cream Jewel’ – Opens Yellow and Matures to Cream, 24″ Tall, Late Season Bloom

‘Cistula’ – Pale Yellow with Darker Yellow Tips, Lily Flowering, 22″ Tall, Late Season Bloom
‘Sweet Harmony’ – Crisp Yellow with Cream Edges, 24″, Late Season Bloom
‘Golden Melody’ – Soft Yellow, 20″ Tall, Midseason Bloom

Summer Bulbs for Water Features

An important feature of a well-designed garden is a focal point. Something with strong visual interest can become the exclamation mark among the flowers and foliage. I like to add a focal point that infuses the garden with personality. Water does just that for me.

Believe it or not but water features have been a part of gardening since ancient times and are well represented in every era and culture. In the Italy of 1550 AD, several royal houses constructed elaborate water gardens incorporating mechanical devices. The best-known is the Villa d’Este at Tivoli. Villa d’Este has a hill cascading with fountains and grottoes with water-driven figures that move or spout water. Then along came the industrial age and the invention of the water pump allowed us to harness water power. Pumps made it possible to recirculate water instead of diverting it from rivers and springs like in early times.

Then as water feature popularity spread across Europe, Hellbrunn Palace added a fun twist to theirs. Named “folly fountains”, these spouts would erupt without notice to surprise people for their entertainment. Remember, there was no cable TV back then …

But you really don’t have to go to those lengths in order to enjoy a water garden. I like the enchanting quality that water adds to a garden. Hot days just seem cooler when you’re relaxing by a tranquil pond with the sound of moving water providing a soothing background rhythm. It’s also a place where wildlife will come to take a morning drink and I can watch them from a distance while sipping my coffee.

Some water features are very formal with sharp edges and geometric shapes. Others are more organic, mimicking nature. Both styles benefit from the addition of moisture loving plants. In addition to the usual suspects many summer “bulbs” are beautiful additions to pools, fountains and ponds.

Here is a list of ones that I have used in masses all around my different garden ponds. Mix and match them as perennial elements in your water feature designs. Some you can plant in pots to sink in the water, others will thrive in the moist soil around the edges.

Plants for PondsAcidanthera – Try some as an unexpected garden surprise. They prefer the water’s edge.

Caladium candidum – I love using the different Caladiums and I especially like this one for its large green leaf texture and white venation to play against spikey leaved or small textured leaved plants in the planting design. The other advantage of using Caladiums is that you can bring spots of bright white or rosy color to shady spots around the water’s edge.

Calla Lily ‘Black Forest’, ‘Dark Eyes’, ‘Flame’, ‘Neon Amour’ – Calla lilies are another plant that can handle the sun or the shade. Callas will flower in a whole rainbow of color plus the leaves are large, glossy and oftentimes spotted or variegated adding to the visual interest around the water or emerging from pots submerged in the water.

Canna ‘Bronze Rosever’, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘Red King Humbert’ – Cannas are another versatile summer bulb that serves triple duty in my water garden. The large leaves bring textural interest, the plant has amazing flowers and leaves that you can plant close to the water, even a little submerged and it will thrive. Plus this plant will tolerate some shade!

Elephant Ear Colocasia (pendulous leaves) and Elephant Ear Alocasia (upright leaves) – Elephant ears lend a powerful focal point to a pond planting. Plant these in the water as well as around the water’s edge to soften the transition from liquid to terra firma. ‘Hilo Beauty’ has lovely white spots and ‘Illustris’ sports a dark purple leaf.

Eucomis bicolor – This unique bloom is visually true to its common name – pineapple lily. Plant it close to the water’s edge.

Fritillaria michailovskyi is – Another intriguing accent to consider around water features.

Galtonia candicans – Commonly known as Summer Hyacinth, this is another interesting bulb to add to beds around a pond, plus it is gently fragrant.

Iris ‘Alba’, ‘Bronze Beauty’, ‘Caesar’s Brother’, ‘Golden Beauty’ – Don’t be afraid to use irises right in the pond edge or potted and dropped right into the water, they can handle wet feet just fine!

Liatris spicata – Gayfeather is perfect around the pond; it attracts bees, birds, butterflies and hummingbirds and is also a summer flower arrangement mainstay.

Tulip-Filled Planter Box

Tulip Filled Planter BoxThis trio of dark green dwarf Alberta spruce creates a rhythmic backdrop for an array of colorful spring flowers. You can pot up this combination this fall for winter interest and a beautiful display next spring when the tulips emerge. If you live in a region where winters are severe, place the planter in a sheltered area to protect the bulbs from freezing. Although the ajuga and creeping Jenny will die back in the winter they are both cold hardy to zone 3 and will return next spring.

This planter box is sensational placed against a bare wall decorated with a single eye-catching architectural feature, such as a mask, hanging above it.

(1) Faux lead/resin trough – 33" long x 17" wide x 14" deep

(3) 1 gallon Dwarf Alberta Spruce (Picea glauca ?Conica’)
(4) 1 qt. Golden Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia ?Aurea’)
(4) 1 qt. ?Bronze Beauty’ Ajuga (Ajuga reptans ‘Bronze Beauty’)
(12) plants or (2) six packs Viola (Viola cornuta)
(20) Elizabeth Arden Tulips

Tulips are real knockouts in this planter box, emerging from a sea of violas. Be generous when filling in the center of the planter, setting bulbs "shoulder to shoulder." Creeping Jenny and ajuga join in the cozy display and spill over the sides of the container, softening the planter’s edge.

This arrangement sustains its beauty beyond the spring season. After the tulips fade, replace them with a series of pink dianthus or salmon geraniums. The ajuga and creeping Jenny stay on to become more lush as the season unfolds.

Things to keep in mind:
Invent your own similar recipe if these plant varieties aren’t available in your area.

Alberta spruce can be substituted with another conical evergreen, creeping Jenny could be replaced with a golden variegated ivy, and if tulips aren’t available, try other spring flowering bulbs such as daffodils or hyacinths. Even the violas can be substituted with pansies or purple nemesia.

Make sure the stand-ins require the same water and light conditions.

Unusual Summer Bulbs

Summer “bulb” is a general term that covers more than bulbs; there are rhizomes, corms, and tubers too. With all these options it’s no surprise that the category of summer bulbs includes a lot of variety and goes well beyond the usual canna, dahlia and lily. Here are 5 interesting summer bulbs that I grow in my garden with uncommon beauty.

Colchicum speciosum, agrippinum or autumnale

Also known as Meadow Saffron or Autumn Crocus, Colchicum species will add sparks of color to your late summer or fall garden. These bulbs produce flowers similar to crocus in appearance, but they are actually members of the lily family.

Excellent hybrid varieties to try include ‘Autumn Queen’ with deep violet flowers; ‘The Giant’, which has pinkish-mauve blooms on a white base; ‘Waterlily’ which is double flowering and lilac colored; ‘Lilac Wonder’ that is pinkish-lilac; ‘Conquest’ is violet; and ‘Violet Queen’ has purplish-mauve flowers and a white center.

Plant corms in late summer or early fall 2 to 4 inches below soil level; 6 inches apart. Choose a location in full sun to partial shade with good, well-draining soil. Good planting sites include the filtered shade of large trees and shrubs, rock gardens or low growing groundcovers. Allowing them to naturalize under low growing, carpeting plants makes a nice backdrop for the flowers. Perennial in zones 4 through 9, colchicums get bigger and better with age.

Good to know – Corms that do not get planted on time will bloom anyway. And you can force them to flower once indoors by setting them upright on a bed of pebbles in a bowl of water up to their base.

Crocosmia X crocosmiflora (Montbretia)

This member of the Iris family has been a favorite for generations in the South, where you can find them flowering in old gardens and home sites. The red, orange or yellow flowers typically bloom mid-summer to fall adding splashes of color to the late season garden during the dog days of summer. Even when they are not in bloom the spikey foliage offers contrast and texture.

Crocosmia is easy to grow in hardiness zones 6 – 10. Set out the corms in early spring when the danger of frost is past. Plant in full sun or partial shade in hotter climates. Plant 3 to 5 inches deep and 6 to 8 inches apart and group a dozen or more together for the best effect.

There are several cultivars worthy of a primary spot in your garden. ‘Lucifer’ is definitely worth planting with its 4 foot flower stalks and brilliant scarlet flowers. Others are ‘Emily McKenzie, orange with maroon splotches; ‘George Davidson’, lemon yellow flowers on 2 foot stems; and ‘Solfatare’, apricot-yellow flowers with bronze leaves.

Liatris spicata, aspera, pycnostachya

Also known as Blazing Star or Gayfeather, these native perennials endure heat, cold, drought and poor soil. With an extended summer bloom period, the long stems emerge from grassy tufts showcasing rosy-purple bottle brush blooms. These hardy plants return yearly and oftentimes reseed to create colonies of colorful clumps.

Excellent for cutting, drying and beautiful in the border these plants thrive in full sun or part shade and well drained even dry soil with a wide range of texture and fertility. Best grown in as much sun as possible to produce a strong plant.

Plant corms in early spring or in late summer to early fall 1 inch deep and 6 to 8 inches apart, further apart in humid environments. Keep adequately spaced for good air circulation. Water them regularly to establish the plants but DO NOT overwater. The number of days before blooming is about 70- 90 days. Sometimes support is needed as the stems elongate in windy areas or if the flower spikes topple over if overly fertilized. Dry by hanging upside down in a dry area. Varieties that are worthy to grow in the garden are ‘Kobold’ which is a deeper purple, ‘Silver Tips’ with silvery lavender blooms and ‘Floristan White’ which is an excellent flower for cutting.

Good to know – Growing from corms the ones that are 2 to 7 centimeters long produce the greatest number of flowering stems and as the day length increases the number of flowering stems per corm decreases.

Lycoris squamigera

Call it what you like – Magic Lily, Surprise Lily, Naked lady or Resurrection Lily – Lycoris squamigera is the easiest to grow in the Lycoris family. The pink trumpet shaped blooms provides a real show in the garden. The foliage appears in the early spring, disappears around mid-summer, and then the flowers pop up in early fall. Surprise!

Surprise lilies easily adapt to most growing conditions and are dependable in both the landscapes and containers. Hardy in zones 5 – 11, this is the cold hardiest of the species. It thrives in full sun or partial, open shade and various types of well-drained soil. Plant bulbs about 4 inches deep, 6 inches apart in the fall and then don’t disturb for several years. They will gradually spread over time. Water moderately and apply a liquid fertilizer monthly until the leaves die down.

Good to know – When potting in a container, set them with the tops exposed. And don’t use too large of pot as these bulbs bloom best with crowded roots.

Polianthes tuberose

With good drainage and ample mulching, these Mexican exotics are quite rewarding. They are prized for their tall sprays of pearly white, tubular, very fragrant flowers. Plant them near a patio, walk, deck or other living space to enjoy the spicy-sweet fragrance.

‘The Pearl’ is a double flowered variety and most widely known, but the single flowered types make the longest lasting cut flowers.

Hardy in zones 7(with protection) – 10, grow tuberoses in organically rich, well-draining soil. Plant the rhizomes 2 inches deep and 6 inches apart in spring after the threat of frost is past. Provide consistent moisture throughout the growing season.

Good to know – Don’t forego tuberoses if you live in an area where they aren’t hardy. Just treat them as an annual. Start pots indoors in early spring and move them outdoors to a sunny location after the threat of frost has passed.

Start your Potted Daffodil Garden

It’s hard to believe when summer comes to an end that it’s already time to start planting bulbs for spring bloom. All of our favorite bulbs – such as hyacinths, tulips, and of course, that symbol of spring itself, the daffodil – are now available in garden centers and nurseries.

I suppose the daffodil would have to be my favorite because of its simple beauty and reliable nature. You can just about always depend on it to return each spring. And while I can’t imaging my garden without those bright blooms, I know that once the flowers fade I need to leave the remaining foliage in place for almost six weeks so the bulb can be recharged to bloom again next year.

Pot of Daffodils
Though it’s not hard to disguise their long green leaves with other emerging plants, there is a way to enjoy the flowers without the problem of the remaining foliage. All you have to do is plant the bulbs in nursery pots and then bury them in the garden. Once the blooms fade, just lift the pots and set them aside.

This project is easy to do in a weekend. Start by finding an area where you’d like to enjoy a spring bulb garden. I’m always hungry for some early color in my vegetable garden, so my raised beds were ideal, but you may have an area near your front door or in an established flower bed. The best locations are well-drained soil with full sun, but even partial shade will do. Avoid wet, marshy spots.

Next, collect several plastic nursery pots. They don’t have to be the same size. I use containers that range from 6 to 8 inches in diameter and from 5 to 8 inches deep. Then pick out the daffodils you want to use. This may be the hardest part because there are so many choices.

While daffodils will grow in most areas of the country, some varieties perform better than others depending on the climate. With more than 13,000 hybrids to choose from, you’ll want to check with your local garden center or other gardeners to find the bulbs best suited for your area. You’ll find that daffodils have been developed to bloom in early, mid or late season, so you can extend the length of the display by choosing from each category.

Prepare the area by loosening the soil with a shovel. Then put about an inch of loose garden soil in the bottom of the containers, and place the bulbs shoulder to shoulder, pointed tip up. Add another inch of soil, and slip in a few more bulbs. Layering bulbs in each container gives you a bouquet. Fill the containers to the top with more soil. If you like, add a tag identifying the varieties. Next spring, you can note which ones performed the best.

Buried BulbsOnce all the pots are filled, water well. Then dig a hole in the bed, deep enough so the pot’s lip sits about an inch below the surface of the soil. Place the containers in the ground and fill in more soil around them. Lightly tamp down the area.

In my mid-South garden, winters are relatively mild, so I like to over-plant my bulb beds with violas and pansies. These plants thrive in low light and cool temperatures and provide a spot of color through the cold months. Or, you can add these plants after the daffodils begin to emerge in spring. Both violas and pansies can survive a frost and rebound in bright color.

Now sit back and dream of the beautiful display you’ll enjoy next spring. An added bonus of this potted-bulb method is that once the flowers are up, you can lift a container from the bed and bring it inside to enjoy. Simply slip the plastic container into a more decorative pot, add a few more pansies, and cover the top in sheet moss. It’s a quick and easy way to enjoy your flowers a second time as a spring centerpiece.

My Daffodil Picks:
For potting success, try these varied cultivars. Just make sure that you plant your bulbs before the ground freezes in the North, and after it cools down from summer in the South. Check a zone map to see which of these daffodils is best suited for your garden.

‘Topolino’ – white petals with a creamy yellow trumpet; it is dwarf in size and resembles the little trumpet naturalized throughout the Southeast; great for rock gardens, forced in pots, and in patio containers; 8 to 10 inches tall; early to midseason; zones 4 – 8.

‘Jenny’ – a small charmer that opens white and yellow but matures to a clear white; 10 to 12 inches tall; midseason; zones 3 – 8

‘Pipit’ – two to three luminous yellow flowers per stem, but the cup quickly turns white; superb garden perennial and show winner; American bred; 14 to 16 inches tall; midseason; zones 4 – 9.

‘Lemon Drop’ – two to three large, teardrop-shaped flowers per stem standing with reverence in the garden as it bows its two-toned head; American bred; 12 to 14 inches tall; midseason; zones 4 – 9.

‘Jack Snipe’ – cyclamineus miniature with a white perianth and yellow trumpet, great for rock gardens; 12 inches tall; early; zones 3 – 8.

‘Quail’ – long-lasting floriferous American-bred selection with deep bronze-yellow, multiple flowers; 12 to 13 inches tall; midseason; zones 5 – 9.

Storing Summer Bulbs for Winter

How do you prepare summer bulbs such as calla lilies for the winter?

Zantedeschias or calla lilies are tender perennials grown from tubers and like other summer bulbs, they should be dug from the garden and stored when planted in cold winter climates. Callas are marginally cold hardy in my zone 7 garden so I choose between two methods; sometimes I plant them in pots and store in my lathe house over the winter or I treat them as an annual and let nature take its course.

Here is a list of summer bulbs, including calla lilies that require winter protection with details on how to store them.

Hardy in zones 9 to 11. In fall, once the flowering ceases and before the first frost, bring in begonias for the winter. Leave them alone until the stems dry and pull off easily. Store “as is” in pots or dig up the tubers. Dug tubers should be allowed to dry for a few days and then stored in layers of slightly moist vermiculite or sawdust. Keep in a room that stays at approximately 40 F to 55 degrees F.

Hardy in zones 9 to 10. Treat as an annual or dig and store the bulbs for winter. If growing in a flower bed, dig the bulbs after a frost has killed the foliage and store them in saw dust or mulch. If grown in containers, move the container indoors and allow the plant to go dormant.

Hardy in zones 10 to 11. Treat as an annual or lift them after the first frost. Allow the tubers to dry thoroughly, and then layer the tubers in dry peat or vermiculite and store them in an area that remains around 50 to 60 degrees F. Check the tubers occasionally to make sure they are plump but dry.

Calla Lily
Hardy in zones 7 to 10. In northern gardens, after the foliage has been damaged by a frost, cut off the tops about 2 inches above the soil line. Dry the calla rhizomes in a warm, dry location for one or two weeks. Then bury the rhizomes in vermiculite, sawdust, or peat moss, and store them in a cool (45 to 55 degrees F), frost-free area. Callas can be started indoors ahead of time in late winter to early spring, and then moved to the garden after the threat of frost has passed. Callas grown in pots can be brought indoors before the first fall frost to continue growing over winter as houseplants. Move them outdoors again in spring, once frosts are passed and night temperatures remain above 40 degrees F.

Hardy in zones 7 to10. After first fall frost has blackened the foliage, or the foliage begins to wither, cut the stems back 4 to 6 inches. Store cannas grown in containers as is, with no further watering. In ground rhizomes should be dug and stored. Allow the fleshy stem stubs to dry before them packing the tubers in slightly moistened sand, vermiculite or peat moss. Keep in a cool location (40 degrees to 50 degrees F). Check on them periodically to make sure they do not dry out.

Hardy in zones 8 to 11. Treat as an annual or bring them indoors to overwinter. Dig the bulbs after the plant has died back and store them in sawdust or mulch. If grown in containers, move the container indoors and allow the plant to go dormant.

Hardy in zones 6 to 10. The variety ‘Lucifer’ is cold hardy up to zone 5 if given a protective layer of mulch. In colder zones, before the first fall frost, dig the corms and store them on a tray in dry peat moss in an area with temperatures between 40 degrees F to 48 degrees F.

Hardy in zones 8 to10 and often in zone 7 with a heavy layer of mulch. Store potted dahlias in their containers. In ground bulbs should be lifted. Be careful not to break or cut the tuber “necks.” Do not wash the bulbs to remove soil. Store them away from drafts at 40 degrees F to 50 degrees F in a paper bag or box filled with peat moss or dry sand. Check them frequently for shriveling or decay.

Hardy in zones 7 to 10. These bulbs are best grown in containers that can be brought indoors for winter protection. Cease watering and leave bulbs undisturbed.

Hardy in zones 7 to 10. Dig after the foliage browns. Cut the stems back to 1-inch above the corm. Dry, and then remove the excess debris and store them in paper bags. Keep the bags in an area safe from mice at a temperature between 35 degrees F to 45 degrees F. If gladiolus were grown in pots, bring them indoors, stop watering and store them in their containers until spring.

Hardy in zones 8 to 10. This plant can be treated as a houseplant indoors or it dig up from the garden and dry it with the soil attached. Plants grown in containers can be dried and stored “as is.”

Hardy in zones 8 to 10. Dig up before the first hard frost. Cut the foliage back to 2-inches and store it in peat moss at 60 to 65 degrees F. Check frequently for shriveling.